Find more about our methodology
The methodology listed here refers to the latest round of data collection, which happened in 2021. Since them, mapCrowd database and website have been updated in 2022 to adapt to advocates' requests and the changing HCV test-and-treatment landscape. Some of the datapoints added to mapCrowd will not have data nor methodology available until the next round of data collection. You can help us fill in the gaps by becoming a mapcrowder.
mapCrowd relies on a network of national HCV experts and mapCrowders, who act as focal points for data collection. Most mapCrowders are affiliated with non-governmental organisations (NGOs). mapCrowders are selected based on their expertise in HCV advocacy and their capacity to obtain country-level information from a variety of sources.
Since mapCrowd was launched in February 2016, HCV experts and advocates have provided technical assistance and granted access to their respective country profile, upon review of their background and ability to gather relevant data. mapCrowders are then able to update the data based on realities at the national level according and their research and network in the country. In some cases, respondents report that data is hard to obtain or only partially available (such as data on yearly national treatment uptake). Where possible, mapCrowders work with Ministries of Health to obtain the most up-to-date information to complement missing data.
As for September 2021, 119 countries have been fully or partially filled in by mapCrowders:
Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo (Democratic Republic of the), Costa Rica, Côte D’Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kosovo, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malawi, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Macedonia, (Republic of), Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines , Poland, Portugal, Moldova (Republic of) , Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Tajikistan, Tanzania (United Republic of ), Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, United States of America, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Viet Nam, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
We recognize the limitations of the crowd-sourced data which rely on where we have in-country contributors and networks. To supplement these contributions, mapCrowd also incorporates data from literature review of peer-reviewed medical journals, expert reports, and institutional research that are listed per topic below.
This section comprises 13 questions divided into sub-sections: General and Health.
All the data of this section come from the World Bank Open Data website and updated yearly (http://databank.worldbank.org/data/source/world-development-indicators#). When data are not available for the current year in a country, “no data” is filled-in. The “Regions” data were pulled from UN official country regional classification.
This section comprises 14 questions. When there was no medium rate, an average has been calculated between the lowest rate and highest rates. This calculation applies to approximately 25 data and is indicated in the comment space linked to the data. The most recent data or data entered directly by a mapCrowder has been given priority over data from the scientific literature review. Data sources are given to the extent possible in the comment space corresponding to each data.
Estimated adult prevalence of HCV (antibody):
People who inject drugs (PWID)
Estimated number of viremic adults:
Previously in the mapCrowd, the number of viremic adults per country was automatically calculated by applying the average approximation of 74% Chronic HCV among persons with HCV antibodies (in Micallef, J. M., Kaldor, J. M., & Dore, G. J. (2006). Spontaneous viral clearance following acute hepatitis C infection: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 13(1), 34–41. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-2893.2005.00651.x) to the datapoint “Estimated adult prevalence of HCV”.
By now, mapCrowd integrates data from the study Global prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus infection in 2015: a modeling study made by Polaris Observatory HCV Collaborators and published in 2017 in the Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;2(3):161–76. https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S2468-1253%2816%2930181-9.
This study provides data for 100 countries and is used by the WHO as the primary reference on this issue despite the following potential bias/cautions. For example, mapCrowd highlights that:
People who inject drugs
Estimated adult prevalence of HIV:
People who inject drugs (%)
Estimated HCV prevalence among HIV-positive adults:
People who inject drugs (%)
Estimated number of people who inject drugs (PWID) in the country:
Are the following medicines registered in the country?
In addition, to find your national body in charge of the regulation of drugs, a non-exhaustive list of Global Regulatory Authority Websites is available here: https://www.pda.org/scientific-and-regulatory-affairs/regulatory-resources/global-regulatory-authority-websites
And a less updated list of medicines regulatory authorities is published by the World Health Organisation: http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/quality_safety/regulation_legislation/list_mra_websites_nov2012.pdf
Are the following medicines registered in your country?
Is there any initiative to overcome patents barriers and curb excessive prices in your country?
Data related to patent oppositions and compulsory licenses:
Data related to voluntary licenses: from the official list of territories/countries included in the license agreements from three pharmaceutical companies:
Availability & prices of HCV treatment
Are the following HIV drugs (ARV) available in your country?
Harm Reduction services
Harm Reduction International. Global State of Harm Reduction 2020. London: Harm Reduction International; 2020